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Book 1, Sutra 42: Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra

“WITH SAVITARKA SAMAPATTI, THE OBJECT’S NAME, THE MEANING BEHIND THE NAME AND ALL OTHER INFORMATION CONNECTED TO THAT OBJECT ARE BLENDED TOGETHER SEEMLESSLY.”

 

In this sutra Patanjali continues to describe “samapatti,” or the state of cognitive blending analogously described by the clear crystal in the last sutra. Here he adds 5 Sanskrt terms: “sabda,” “artha,” “jnana,” “vikalpa,” and “savitarka.” Roughly translated these terms mean “name,” “meaning,” “factual knowledge,” “conceptualization” and “sensorially based perception.” Translations differ somewhat on how Patanjali intended these 5 terms to relate to each other and to “samapatti.” Some translators wrote that the first 4 terms are blended together to get a new version of “samapatti” called “savitarka samapatti.”

I don’t think the “samapatti” described in this sutra is a “new” one that differs from the “samapatti” of the last sutra but I do admit that the following sutras will describe further refinement of “samapatti.” For now, Patanjali is simply giving us more information about the cognitive blending called “samapatti.” Just as the last sutra stated that it was a blending of experiencer, experience and the process of experiencing itself, in this sutra Patanjali describes it as a blending of the theoretical knowledge of an object (name, meaning, inferences, references, etc.) with the sensual knowledge of that object. We can call this “savitarka samapatti,” or “samapatti with sensation” in order to distinguish it from the higher or more refined “nirvitarka samapatti” or “samapatti without sensation” that Patanjali will describe next.

 

 

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